Derechos Humanos/ Human Rights

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commerce-acts-books-477966-mReformas de amparo y derechos humanos mejoran sistema de justicia.
-México-
Fuente: 20 Minutos
El presidente de la Comisión Estatal de Derechos Humanos de Jalisco (CEDHJ), Felipe de Jesús Álvarez Cibrián, afirmó que las reformas constitucionales en los temas de amparo y derechos humanos han mejorado el sistema de justicia en el país.

Precisó que la reforma a la ley de amparo, publicada el 6 de junio de 2011, no deja duda de que la institución del amparo es el medio más efectivo para tutelar derechos humanos y explicó que ahora, los tribunales de la Federación conocerán todo tipo de controversias que se planteen en contra de normas generales. “Ya no contra leyes, que era un término con limitantes; ahora son normas generales; actos y omisiones de las autoridades que lleguen a violentar derechos humanos consagrados en la Constitución y en los tratados internacionales”, indicó Álvarez Cibrián. En el marco del Congreso Nacional de Amparo Doctor Vicente del Arenal Martínez, Diagnóstico, Evaluación y Perspectiva del Amparo Mexicano en el Siglo XXI, puntualizó que la garantía constitucional más efectiva para la defensa y protección de los derechos humanos es el juicio de amparo. Añadió que el amparo merece un profundo estudio y un debate para que se aplique de la manera más adecuada, ya que ahora se reconocen derechos colectivos, de la sociedad; temas ambientales que atañen a la comunidad; la autodeterminación de los pueblos; la dignidad humana, temas que se habían analizado poco. Sin embargo, dijo, “la Suprema Corte de Justicia de la Nación, desde febrero de 2012, ha fijado directrices muy claras a los juzgadores y servidores públicos del país, para que trabajemos y alcancemos una justicia humanista”. “Misma que proteja más eficazmente a grupos vulnerables de la sociedad, como la niñez, pueblos indígenas, migrantes, personas con discapacidad, la impartición de justicia con perspectiva de género, a fin de hacer de la igualdad entre hombres y mujeres una realidad. Así como la protección del medio ambiente, la erradicación de la tortura y los tratos crueles y degradantes, entre otros”, apuntó. Álvarez Cibrián señaló que “estos protocolos de actuación no son simples orientaciones jurisprudenciales, sería un error afirmarlo, porque están fundamentados en estudios de convencionalidad”; es decir, en tratados internacionales de derechos humanos que aplican en cada materia y que no deben soslayarse. También destacó ante los oyentes, la importancia de la reforma constitucional de junio de 2011, ya que ha transformado el sistema de justicia en el país, y que es determinante en la aplicación en el juicio de amparo y otras controversias. “Los principios del derecho internacional son la base fundamental del artículo primero de nuestra Constitución, es la rectoría que ninguna autoridad puede soslayar por tratarse de una obligación, la protección y defensa de los derechos humanos”, recalcó.

IMG_0896El Consejo de Europa admite retos en todos los países en materia de DDHH
Fuente: El Mundo
En todos los países del Consejo de Europa existen retos en la esfera de los derechos humanos, declaró el comisario de esta entidad para DDHH, Nils Muiznieks, al periódico ruso Kommersant en una entrevista publicada este miércoles.
“En enero visité Melilla, el enclave español en Marruecos, y comprobé la situación de los migrantes; visité Francia y publiqué un amplio informe sobre la situación de los gitanos y los inmigrantes, así como sobre el cumplimiento de los derechos de las personas con capacidades físicas limitadas; así que en todos los países del Consejo de Europa existen retos en la esfera de los DDHH”, expresó.
El eurocomisario añadió que “existe racismo y xenofobia respecto a los gitanos y otros grupos; la creciente popularidad del partido húngaro de ultraderecha Jobbik también es motivo de preocupación”.
“En Hungría analizamos el nivel de libertad de los medios de prensa, los problemas migratorios en racismo y la tolerancia; la Comisión de Venecia valoró críticamente el nuevo paquete de leyes húngaras en relación a los medios de prensa; tras ello se realizaron correcciones, pero se mantienen los motivos para la preocupación”, señaló Muiznieks al rotativo ruso.
Muiznieks señaló que realizó varios informes sobre la situación al respecto en los países del Consejo de Europa.
La situación más crítica en materia de DDHH, según el comisario, tiene lugar en Azerbaiyán.
“Todos mis socios de Azerbaiyán, defensores de los derechos humanos y periodistas independientes, están presos; han sido condenados bajo acusaciones extremadamente dudosas; a veces eran acusados a la vez de ser espías y revolucionarios”, declaró.

IMG_0900Why Climate Change is a Business and Human Rights Issue
Source: Triple Pundit
Last month, a Peruvian farmer called on German energy company RWE to pay its fair share to protect his home from imminent flooding caused by a glacial lake melted by global warming. “For a long time, my father and I have thought that those who cause climate change should help solve the problems it causes,” Saul Luciano Lliuya told the Guardian. He holds that RWE, one of Europe’s largest emitters of carbon, has contributed to the greenhouse effect causing glacial melting that endangers his home, along with many others in the city of Huaraz.
Lliuya’s story illustrates the tangible human impacts of climate change, which can easily be forgotten amidst high-level debates over carbon emissions reductions. This is a key year for climate action by both governments and companies. In the lead-up to the much-anticipated Paris climate talks, states are preparing their pledges, and business leaders are developing their approach at meetings such as the Business & Climate Summit this week. Despite devastating impacts of climate change on the rights to health, water, food, housing, livelihood and life, human rights have been on the sidelines of these discussions.
Bringing human rights into the center of discussions would reinforce the call on states and businesses to step up their game. International experts, including former president of Ireland and United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Mary Robinson, have recognized that a human rights focus would strengthen the Paris climate deal. The International Bar Association’s Task Force on Climate Change Justice and Human Rights also established the links between climate justice and corporate responsibility, recommending clear steps for companies.
As Unilever’s CEO Paul Polman puts it, “We can only solve the immense climate issues we face if we also address the human dimension.” However, climate change and human rights are addressed in siloes even within many of the most advanced companies. Making the link clear would allow internal human rights and environmental (or sustainability) champions to push for bolder action within their companies and deliver stronger benefits for the most vulnerable.
Protecting the vulnerable from climate change impacts can be integrated into existing approaches to climate action, such as mitigation – i.e. reducing carbon emissions – and adaptation – helping communities strengthen their resilience in the face of climate impacts.
In their mitigation steps, internal human rights champions can argue for bold greenhouse emission reduction targets citing the devastating impacts of climate change on rights to life, health, housing, water and food. Although some companies are stepping up their commitments on mitigation, the approach is far from universal. A report by the New Climate Institute suggests that the current EU greenhouse gas reduction pledge would prevent 6,000 premature deaths from air pollution. If strengthened further, it could prevent an additional 40,000. Making these types of links clear in a business context will help bolster the argument for more ambitious targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Companies are increasingly recognizing the need to adapt their supply chains to a changing environment brought about by climate change. However, if fundamental rights are not recognized in the process, there is a danger that adaptation efforts can leave behind vulnerable farmers and communities at the bottom of supply chains. This risk is especially acute in the food and agriculture industry, where companies are feeling the pressure to change their approach to producing crops that are highly sensitive to climate change. A recent study found that arabica coffee is facing serious risks from higher temperatures and flooding, which would affect 25 million small farmers who rely on coffee for their livelihoods. Instead of moving production, the study suggests working with local farmers to develop new approaches to production and introduce climate resistant plant varieties.
Oxfam‘s Behind the Brands campaign has recently called on General Mills and Kellogg to implement a number of steps on climate change, including clear adaptation strategies taking into account the needs of small-scale farmers. The companies have agreed to a roadmap of actions that they are currently implementing, which is a commendable step forward. Oxfam is calling on all of the “Big 10” food and beverage companies to follow suit.
Adaptation also involves responsible management of resources essential for the survival of the food industry, such as water and land. Scarcity of the same resources has devastating impacts on families trying to feed their children, communities accessing water and farmer’ livelihoods. Acknowledging this inherent conflict is essential to ensure that basic rights of local communities are respected. However, according to a recent study by Ceres, only 7 out of 37 companies acknowledged that “access to drinking water and sanitation are fundamental human rights.” Raising awareness internally about the importance of human rights would bring about a less conflictual and more just adaptation process.
Now is the time for companies to live up to their potential on responsible climate action. Current and future generations’ health, housing and life depends it. Putting human rights at the center of business action on climate change not only provides tangible framework by which to act, but it also ensures that business addresses the impacts on the most vulnerable.

IMG_2720_v2Democracy and Human Rights in Europe 

Source: Council of Europe
Europe’s democratic shortcomings are bigger, deeper and geographically more widespread than previously understood according to the latest overview of human rights, democracy and the rule of law in the 47 Council of Europe member states.
The report, by Council of Europe Secretary General Thorbjørn Jagland, identifies the lack of judicial independence in many countries and threats to media freedom across the continent as the two biggest challenges to democratic security.
“Honest and decent courts are essential for supporting democracy and maintaining stability, yet over a third of our member countries are failing to ensure that their legal systems are sufficiently independent and impartial,” said the Secretary General.
“Media freedom, on the other hand, is under pressure across the whole continent. Journalists face physical threats in many places, anti-terror laws are being used to limit free speech and certain media arrangements unfairly favour those who are in power.”
The Secretary General’s overview – which is based on findings from the Council of Europe’s thematic monitoring bodies – identifies shortcomings in the conduct of elections, inadequate anti-discrimination rules and pressure on NGOs in many countries as further areas of concern.
As well as statistical analysis, the report includes detailed criteria for assessing different aspects of democratic security and specific plans for follow-up work – including a pan-European action plan for training legal professionals and a new three-year programme on the safety of journalists.
• Press release

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